Energy has been the best way for Russia and Turkey to mend ties after their air incident over Syria in November 2015. Thanks to “a higher level of cooperation than other countries” according to the Kremlin, Presidents Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan managed to speed up the building of the Turkish Stream pipeline whose first leg should be delivered by 2018 and the second one by 2019. On June 23, 2017, Putin had a telephone conversation with Erdogan from aboard a pipe-laying vessel in the Black Sea that was working on the deep-water section of the pipeline. Putin correlated the good level of bilateral cooperation with the fact that just seven months after Russia and Turkey signed an intergovernmental agreement in autumn 2016 “the work is already underway.”
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